LAUTECH Journal of Engineering and Technology <p>LAUTECH Journal of Engineering and Technology (LAUJET) is a leading internationally referred journal in the fields of science, engineering and technology. It is a journal founded by academicians, educationists with substantive experience in industry. The journal is an online open access journal with a yearly print version of its volumes/issues made available to interested persons/institutions. The basic aim of the journal is to promote innovative ideas in fields relating to the sciences, engineering and technology. The basic notion of having a wide area of focus is to encourage multidisciplinary research efforts and seamless integration of diverse ideas that might be gleaned from the papers published in the journal.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria en-US LAUTECH Journal of Engineering and Technology 1597-0000 DEVELOPMENT OF CREDIT CARDS FRAUD DETECTION MODEL <p><em>The evaluation of fraud is of significant importance A credit card contains a compact, thin plastic card that carries information about the individual, such as a photograph or signature, and allows the person make charges on products and services connected to his account, which is deducted regularly. Financial institutions analyzes whether or not transactions are genuine in the future. This research develops a model for fraud detection. As a result of the importance of this study, the goal of this study is to develop a machine learning technique for predicting credit card fraud in the financial sector. The objectives of this research are to investigate machine learning techniques for detecting and analyzing online transactions and investigate credit card fraud cases involving the stealing of physical cards or fraudulently acquiring a victim's card information. The methods applied in this paper include collecting data from Kaggle, an online data collection tool. The Kaggle application programming interface was used in importing the dataset. In this study, cardholders spending behavior are input into the multilayer perceptron and used to train and test the system. This was determined on the training dataset (70%) and evaluated on the testing dataset (30%). The model is developed using a multilayer perceptron (MLP), together with an algorithm. The confusion matrix technique is used for evaluation. The evaluation of results is done by comparing its performance with the classifier using accuracy metrics. The model implementation was done using the python programming language. The data was passed into MLP with an algorithm classifier and the results were obtained with an accuracy of 93% and 99% respectively. This work is advantageous to the banking sector in predicting fraudulent transactions. The model is developed to improve the solution to fraud issues in the financial institutions sector </em></p> I. Nwade P. Ozoh M. Olayiwola M. Ibrahim M. Kolawole O. Olubusayo A. Adigun K. Ogundoyin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-07-08 2023-07-08 17 2 1 8 COMBINING TEXT CLASSIFICATION WITH MACHINE LEARNING <p><strong><em>The internet community is a medium of conveying information for various individuals. Enterprises need to have an insight into their various products and services. For the time being, not automatically reading and classifying plenty of text data could be overwhelming. As a result, this research appropriates the Data scraping method in which datasets are collected via a code written in python programming. Machine learning models were evolved using Random Forest and Naïve Bayes algorithms which are trained with extracted data for text classification. Consequently, texts are classified as positive, negative, slightly negative, slightly positive, or neutral comments utilizing classifiers, in which the experimental outputs indicate that the Random Forest classifier produces more preferable results in terms of reliability with 76.5% above the Naïve Bayes with 70.01%. </em></strong></p> I. Nwade P. Ozoh M. Olayiwola M. Ibrahim M. Kolawole O. Olubusayo A. Adigun ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-07-08 2023-07-08 17 2 9 17 DEVELOPMENT OF AN OPTIMIZED INTELLIGENT MACHINE LEARNING APPROACH IN FOREX TRADING USING MOVING AVERAGE INDICATORS <p><strong><em>This research presents the development of an optimized intelligent machine learning approach in Forex trading using two variants of Moving Average indicators. The main aim of the Expert Advisor (EA) development is to introduce a new intelligent model for automated execution of trades in the Forex market, reducing potential losses due to human errors and sentimental factors in trading Forex. In developing this trading model, Momentum strategy was used since it takes advantage of market swings, along with Machine Learning - Genetic algorithm, being a type of supervised learning used in training the past historical data based on selected trading parameters in a Meta Trader 4 (MT4) platform. The new Expert Advisor –Exponential Moving Average (ESMA) was built using the MQL4 language which is based on C++ for programming specific trading strategies and easily facilitates&nbsp;automated trading. The result is an optimized intelligent trading system that implements the intersection of the two moving averages at various periods, to execute trades autonomously with a profit pass rate of 75% visible from the Optimization chart of the MetaTrader 4 (MT4) platform</em></strong></p> O. E. Aru C. C. Okechukwu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-07-08 2023-07-08 17 2 18 27 PREDICTING COVID-19 FROM CHEST X-RAY IMAGES USING OPTIMIZED CONVOLUTION NEURAL NETWORK <p><strong><em>Machine learning is emerging as a unique powerful method to improve the diagnosis and prognosis of several multifactorial diseases, including COVID-19. The COVID-19 pandemic is a major threat, and it has severe impact on the health and life of many people worldwide. The recent advances in computer vision made possible by various computational method has paved the way for computer assisted diagnosis in fighting COVID-19.&nbsp;Early detection of the COVID-19 through accurate diagnosis, may decrease the patient’s mortality rate. Chest X-ray images are crucial and mostly used for the diagnosis of this disease. Thus, this study used optimized Convolution Neural Network (OCNN) to support the diagnosis of COVID-19 using chest x-ray. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) was applied to optimize the network of CNN for improved performance. The dataset used in this study was acquired from Kaggle repository. The dataset contains the Chest X-Ray images of COVID-19 patients and normal patients. The model is created, and the results have been evaluated by using the various evaluation metrics, i.e., sensitivity, false positive rate, precision, accuracy, and prediction time. The approach adopted in this study enhances CNN by making it free from iterative adjustment of weights which increases the computational speed to a higher extent. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique achieved an improved performance which indicates the very high accuracy of the proposed model.</em></strong></p> J. P. Oguntoye O. O. Awodoye J. A. Oladunjoye B. I. Faluyi S. A. Ajagbe E. O. Omidiora ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-07-08 2023-07-08 17 2 28 39 DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF GREEN -VEGETABLES SLICING MACHINE <p><strong><em>Requirements of food processing units are sensitive and must be in conformity with hygiene and time requirement. Continuous work on the development of machines that are involved in the processing of edibles should be carried out. Traditionally, green-vegetables are plucked raw which often require time and also compromise hygiene. However, the several works done on green-vegetable slicing equipment have added improvement to ways by processing and or consumption. This article attempted the development of green-vegetable slicing machine and also evaluated the performance of same. Existing vegetable slicing machines were studied through literature and process design for development was carried out. Cutting capacity of 1.5 kg and 25 g of uniform slicing were used to evaluate the performance of the developed green-vegetable slicing machine. The shortcomings in the existing slicing machines reduced while reducing loss of sliced and also with uniform slices. Existing vegetable machines has experienced loss and associated time. The developed machine has a significantly improved efficiency to 96%.&nbsp;&nbsp; </em></strong></p> O. O. Alabi O. A. Adeaga G. O. Ogunsiji S. A. Dada ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-07-27 2023-07-27 17 2 40 46 AGGREGATE SIZES AND LAND USE TYPES INFLUENCE THE SOIL AGGREGATE STABILITY OF THE HUMID TROPICAL SOIL ENVIRONMENT <p><strong><em>The impacts of the land use pattern and its management techniques on the size and stability of soil aggregates are still poorly&nbsp;understood. Thus, this study investigated the best aggregate size class suitable for testing soil aggregate stability under different land use types in a humid southwestern Nigeria. Surface soil samples (0–15 cm) were collected under five land use types: continuous arable maize, pasture, coconut, cacao and cassava plantations. The sizes of the tested aggregates were 2–5, 5–10, 10–13, and 13–15 mm. The soil aggregate size classes from the&nbsp;different land use types were subjected to a 5-min.&nbsp;simulated rainfall&nbsp;of 150 mm h<sup>-1</sup>. Two sieves with varying aperture sizes&nbsp;(1.0 and 0.5 mm) were used to test these aggregates under the rainfall simulator. The stability of soil aggregates tested on the 0.5 mm sieve did not significantly vary among aggregate size classes, regardless of land use types. However, there were significant variations in the stability of the soil aggregates evaluated on the 1.0 mm sieve between different land use types&nbsp;and aggregate size classes. The order of aggregate stability for soil under pasture (80.4%) &gt; coconut (77.8%) &gt; cocoa (65.9%) &gt; cassava (51.1%) &gt; maize (33.1%).&nbsp; The amount of soil organic carbon in the soils is directly correlated with this trend.&nbsp;&nbsp; The aggregate size classes of 5–10, 10–13 and 13–5 mm did not significantly differ in stability while the 2–5 mm class had significantly lower stability than the other classes. Due to significant high correlations of stability with soil organic carbon, aggregate size classes of 5–10 and 13–15 mm appear to be the best suitable for routine determination of aggregate stability in the study environment.</em></strong></p> K. S. Are O. J. Idowu G. A. Oluwatosin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-07-27 2023-07-27 17 2 47 57 PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF TANNIA (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) FLOUR AS INFLUENCED BY PRETREATMENT AND DRYING TEMPERATURE <p><strong><em>Drying is an important operation in processing fresh tannia cormel into flour with better storability. Product characteristics and drying variables could affect the final product's quality and consumers’ acceptability. This study was therefore designed to investigate the effects of blanching time (5, 10, and 15 minutes) and drying temperature (60, 70 and 80°C) on selected proximate composition of oven-dried tannia flour. Response Surface Method (RSM) of 2 factors, 3 levels Historical Data Design (HDD) second-order polynomial model was adopted for the experimental design. Flour was produced from fresh and pretreated tannia cormels and proximate analysis of the flour samples was carried out using standard methods. Data obtained were statistically analyzed at 5% level of significance. Moisture content (wet basis), carbohydrate, protein, ash, crude fibre and fat content of the flour samples were within the ranges 4.43-12.74, 77.34-84.71, 2.22-4.22, 2.47-4.69, 0.34-2.50 and 0.63-3.72%, respectively. Samples dried at 60<sup>o</sup>C and blanched for 12.74 minutes had the best quality attributes with the optimum response values of 83.19% carbohydrate, 3.56% protein, 3.80% ash, 0.98% crude fibre and 1.96% fat with 7.01% moisture content. Extended blanching period is recommended to obtain high-quality flour with improved storage stability. Proper combination of drying temperature and blanching period that will result in desired proximate composition of tannia flour can be achieved based on the findings of this study.</em></strong></p> Babatunde Olayinka Oyefeso Akintunde Akintola Mary Moninuade Akintunde Odunayo Comfort Ayandokun Oluwaseyi Kayode Fadele Clement Adesoji Ogunlade ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-07-27 2023-07-27 17 2 58 66 TECHNICAL ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION OF 4G WIRELESS NETWORK HANDOFF DECISION <p><em>This paper presents the technical analysis and simulation of 4G wireless network handoff decision. The integration of numerous new technologies into 4G services which provide faster wireless internet access, makes 4G technology an extremely complicated technology. Vertical handoff poses a great challenge in communication channel and this contributes to unbearable life for subscribers. The method used involves the handoff process for inter-nodes handoff, together with matching network loads using three phases of operation. The performance of the four handoff algorithms was optimized, compared and evaluated using MATLAB/Simulink. The results obtained shows that at 6ms of time to trigger, the results of the proposed handoff algorithm had the highest optimized ratio value of 18225.701 and also, at 1 beta level, the proposed algorithm had the lowest optimized ratio value of 9255.701. Again, at 1.5 alpha level, the proposed algorithm had the highest optimized ratio value of 3012.701. The experimented results produced the minimum handoff delay of 1000.701 when compared with the other three algorithms. In conclusion, the results realized have improved the handoff decisions in order to achieve a reliable signal strength in wireless network.</em></p> E. U. Udo G. O. Odo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-07-27 2023-07-27 17 2 67 74 PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF INTEGRATED COCONUT GRATING AND MILK EXTRACTING DEVICE <p><strong><em>Coconut milk extraction from the kernel is usually done in two processes and with two different machines. First, the coconut meat is crushed into smaller pieces using a grater and then the grated meat is taken to an extracting device where the milk will be removed from the meat. This makes the process a bit cumbersome and time consuming. Hence, this work develops a suitable device with a simple design and easy to operate mechanism efficiently grating the coconut meat and extracting the milk in a single operation. The system is made up of a hopper, rolling grater, screw press, sieve, and an electric motor, all assembled on a metallic frame. The capacity of the grater was determined to be 299 kg/h. Three phases, 3 horse power electric gear motor was employed in running the machine with the speed of 750rpm during the performance evaluation of the device. The experimental machine gave the highest milk yield of 39.22% and an average milk yield of 36.04% which is about 81% of the moisture content of the coconut kernel. Also, the average milk extraction efficiency was 35.15%, showing that the machine can produce about 105 kg of milk per hour.</em></strong></p> Babatunde Victor Omidiji Samuel Bandele Israel Alade Israel Adetan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-07-27 2023-07-27 17 2 75 82 OPTIMIZATION AND MODELLING OF BIO-OIL YIELD FROM THE PYROLYSIS OF JATROPHA CURCAS SEED USING OPTIMAL DESIGN AND ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS <p><strong><em>Better quality and quantity of pyrolysis products from bio­mass can be obtained by regulating the input parameters of the pyrolysis process.&nbsp; Pyrolysis of Jatropha Curcas seed mixed with alumina catalyst was carried out in a fixed bed reactor to study the effects of temperature, time, and particle size on bio char and bio-oil yield. The bio-oil yields were optimized using the Optimal Design (OD) under the Combined Methodology of the Design-Expert Software (12.0). The input and output parameters were modeled and validated using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) based on 40 experimental data generated by the OD. The optimum bio-oil yield of 15.6 wt. % was obtained at 650 °C, 30 min, and 1 mm particle size. The Correlation Coefficient (R<sup>2</sup>) of the model for the bio-char and bio-oil yield under the OD were 0.998 and 0.996, respectively. The optimized ANN architecture employed the in-built Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm in MATLAB software. Random division of the data into training, validation and testing sets followed 70:15:15 percentage proportions with 15 hidden layers.&nbsp; This resulted in the minimum Mean Square Error (MSE) of 2.15e-05 and (R<sup>2</sup>) of 0.96394 for the bio-oil yield. The FTIR spectra indicated that bio-oil contained phenols, esters, and acids compound while its Gas Chromatography analysis showed the presence of pyrrolidine, pyrimidine, and aldehydes. These properties signified the bioenergy and biochemical capabilities of the pyrolytic oil obtained. The prediction accuracy indicates that both the ANN and OD can be deployed for accurate prediction.</em></strong></p> K. O. Oladosu T. O. Amoloye K. Mustapha J. O. Oderinde S. Babalola ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-07-27 2023-07-27 17 2 83 103