GENETIC DIVERSITY AMONG FULANI AND YORUBA ECOTYPE OF NIGERIA INDIGENOUS CHICKEN IN THE DERIVED SAVANNAH ZONE USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS
Genetic diversity of two different populations of Nigeria Native chickens of was examined by means of microsatellite markers. The populations studied are Fulani Ecotype Chickens (FEC) and Yoruba Ecotype Chickens (YEC). Five di-nucleotide microsatellite markers were investigated to study the genetic diversity and population structure of the two ecotypes. All microsatellite examined were polymorphic across the two populations. A total of 62 alleles were detected across the five loci examined with 32 alleles found in Fulani Ecotype Chicken (FEC) and 30 allele found in Yoruba Ecotype Chickens (YEC). The number of alleles ranged from 4-8 in FEC and 4-10 in YEC. The mean number of alleles (MNA) across all the microsatellite was 6.2 0.696 across the population. While the mean number per population are 6.4 0.784 in FEC and 6.0 1.265 in FEC and YEC respectively. Highest number of allele was found in loci LEI0094 and MCW0216 in FEC and locus LEI0094 in YEC. Private alleles were found in loci LEI0094, ADL0268, MCW0216 and MCW0248 in both populations. The observed heterozygosity (Ho) was between 0.277 to 0.809 in FEC and 0.383 to 0.660 in YEC while the expected heterozygosity (He) was between 0.392 to 0.670 in FEC and 0.290 to 0.727 in YEC. Fis, Fit and Fst of the two populations ranged between -0.051 to 0.0105, -0.043 to 0.110 and 0.003 to 0.008 for respectively across the loci. The percentage of variation among population was 8% while among individual and within individual was 91% and 1% respectively. Nei’s Genetic distance between the two populations (0.015), based on (UPGMA) the two populations are classified as being genetically close to each other. Genetic diversity across the two populations is high. There is low level of genetic differentiation between the two populations which showed absence of clear sub structuring of Nigeria indigenous Chickens from derived savannah zone.