Three phase microcontroller based automatic change-over selection switch

  • O. A. Akinola Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta
  • A. S. Afolabi
  • A. T. Adebayo
  • E. K. Ojo
  • A. A, Raji
Keywords: microcontroller, switching, changeover, mains power supply


The significance of electricity in a developed country cannot be underestimated because power instability problem affects the economy growth, productivity and infrastructure development. The issues of phase failure, losses and phase imbalance earth fault are main causes that lead to unstable and erratic power supply. Most homes and office complexes where single-phase supply is needed are supplied with three phases of power supply to allow change from one phase to another when there is fluctuation or complete outage of power supply on a particular phase. This operation is normally done manually and has caused a setback in terms of time wastage, strenuous operation, susceptibility to fire outbreak, electric shock and high maintenance frequency. When voltage supply on a phase is below 220V or above 415V, this system automatically disconnects the load from the phase and connects to another where the required condition is met. Therefore, this paper presents a Microcontroller Based Automatic Transfer Switching System which is made up of voltage sensing circuit, Hall Effect current sensor, relays, LEDs and LCD of PIC16F877A microcontroller. A system flow chart was developed, programmed with MikroC software and simulated using Proteus electrical software design. A 10KVA single phase generator was used as alternate power source. The load capacity of the design was determined by decoupling Maxwells Equations of 8KW and power loss using pointing vector equation as 0.25% of the peak load. The switch is tested to have function optimally within ±5% nominal voltage of 220 - 415V supply and produced approximately 20 seconds elapses during the entire process of power supply changeover.  Hence this device is suitable for Industrial and Domestic use where 3-phase power supply is available with a stand-by power source.

How to Cite
Akinola, O., Afolabi, A., Adebayo, A., Ojo, E., & Raji, A. (2024). Three phase microcontroller based automatic change-over selection switch. LAUTECH Journal of Engineering and Technology, (No 2), 161-174. Retrieved from