MINIMISING ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF NANOMATERIALS: A REVIEW
Nanomaterials play very important role in chemical industries, agrochemical products, pharmaceutical drugs, materials science, engineering and nanotechnology. There is a recent increase in the utilization of nanomaterials for food and nutraceutical materials, energy, biomedical, cosmetics, textiles and health products. Nanotechnology is a potential area that revolutionises almost every sector of life and is predicted to become a major economic force in the near future. Nanomaterials are dispersed or solid particles with a size range of 1-100nm. Toxicity and ecotoxicity of some nanomaterials are well known. Their discharge into the environment pose serious threat to human life and environment. As such, it has become imperative to have a critical evaluation of the current states of knowledge with respect to the exposure and effect nanomaterials on the environment. The present review focused on reducing environmental problems associated with production, utilization and waste products disposal of nanoparticles. Sequel to environmental challenges posed by the use of nanomaterials in nanotechnology, efforts should be geared towards environmental remediation, efficient conversation of biomass, green chemistry, mandatory report of information about nanomaterials, modeling approach specific for NMs as well as standardized guidance describing specific requirements for the testing of fate and effects of Nanomaterials.